Karol Wojtyla was born near Kraków in 1920. Having studied theology secretly during the German occupation, he was ordained a priest in 1946, becoming archbishop in 1964 and cardinal in 1967. Outspoken and often controversial, John Paul II became one of the best-known figures in the world as the Cold War drew to an end. The most traveled Pope there has been, he had visited 123 countries by his eightieth birthday. By his eighty-third birthday, in 2003, he had become the fourth-longest-serving Pope in history, having worked diligently to secure his theological legacy within the church.